南京高二期中考试应用文和概要写作指导

日期:2019-11-12 08:57:14   来源:互联网   编辑:小狐   阅读人数:778

应用文写作

1.简述写信事由。

2.寻求帮助。

注意:

1.词数80左右。

2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。

提纲:

要点1:抄袭作业(copy homework)--beyond his ability; play computer games; not prepare the lesson well; too much homework, no time

要点2:拒绝:honesty comes first; violate school rules;结果not speak to each other

要点3:seek for help

Dear the editor。

I am writing to ask you for help about how to mend my broken friendship.

Last Friday, not having prepared his homework well, Zhanglin, my close friend, wanted to copy my homework, to whom I responded with a definite refusal. In my belief, it is honesty that comes first and such behavior undoubtedly went against school rules. Unfortunately, a cold war followed. Since then never have we spoken to each other and conflicts arose frequently.

What shall I do? Look forward to your reply.

Yours sincerely。

Lihua

总结:

1.开篇一定要写目的,为什么写信,要具体化,但实际改的过程中发现学生直接写I am…这不是申请信,而是求助信。

2.拓展句子的典型:

简单句:

Last Friday, Zhanglin, my close friend, wanted to copy my homework.

前面原因:非谓语结构Not having …后面非限制性定语从句

3.好的表达:

to whom I responded with…一般表示对什么的回应

it is honesty that comes first强调句

never have we spoken to each other倒装句

其次请注意definite, undoubtedly, unfortunately, frequently感情副词,能让读者感受到写信人的情感。

第二节概要写作(满分20分)

In the last few decades, scientists have reached a consensus and reported that human beings are causing changes in the Earths climate.

Global warming refers to an average increase in the Earths temperature that, in turn, leads to climate change. If we continue to produce carbon dioxide and other gases in such huge quantities, we are expecting severe consequences. Recent reports have warned that global warming will cause terrible climate changes including more frequent flooding, heat, waves and droughts. Serious diseases will spread and industries that rely on nature will be badly affected. Increased temperatures will also cause the polar ice to melt, raising sea levels and flooding many islands and cities. How can we stop these disasters from happening?

Governments all over the world should take on the responsibility, but this is no easy task. Some governments express reservations about whether global warming is really caused by human activities. Many people believe that they are simply not prepared to give up the amount of money they make from industry to save the Earth.

But why wait around for governments to take action? Experts say that each person plays their part. They suggest ng small changes like taking public transport, recycling using low-flow shower heads, and buying light bulbs that use less energy. Even simple things like using recycled paper or switching off the lights when you leave a room can help. If we add up all these small changes made by everyone worldwide, they wont be such small changes. They could be the changes that save our future.

指导:概要写作是新加题型,我们改的过程中发现绝大部分学生并不了解基本的概要写作的规则,要点不全,直接照抄非常普遍。

概要写作步骤:

1.明结构

3.连句子:衔接词;改变说法(恰当的衔接词非常重要,否则就是拼凑,毫无意义)

具体说来:本文结构是:主题现象,分析原因,提出建议。这样结构明朗了,衔接词就能加上。

要点1:human beings are causing changes in the Earths climate

改写:It is human beings that are to blame for / are responsible for the Earths climate change.

要点2:第二段比较复杂,一定要仔细分析:

句1:主题句;句2:解释句:解释名词;其它句子:拓展句:分析结果

概要写作中的解释句一般都略掉(除非这一段就专门解释某个名词概念或现象)二级信息就剩下serious diseases了,我们一般纳入概要中,但这里面形成多个分类的disease,是否纳入?提倡纳入的,只不过要在措辞上下点功夫。

In the last 50 years, gases pumped into the Earths atmosphere by factories and vehicles have been speeding up the process of global warming and affecting our climate.

这句是主题句,转换:

Gases released by humans activities

主要看分析结果的部分:

Serious diseases will spread and industries that rely on nature will be badly affected.

转成名词词组:serious diseases to spread

Increased temperatures will also cause the polar ice to melt, raising sea levels and flooding many islands and cities.

为名词词组:melting polar ice (后面的raising…属于结果状语了,不需要加上)

整合:Gases from various human activities accelerate the process global warming, giving rise to all kinds of severe consequences such as serious diseases and the melting polar ice.

点3:这个地方错误最多,基本都是说政府应该承担,但这不全。

一级信息:Governments all over the world should take on the responsibility, but this is no easy task.

核心:政府须负责,但不容易做到。

二级信息:Some governments express reservations …Many people believe that they are simply not prepared to give up

核心:政府怀疑和不愿意放弃金钱利益—政府不情愿

合并:Some governments are reluctant to shoulder their own responsibility.

要点4:But why wait around for governments to take action? Experts say that They suggest like taking public transport, recycling using low-flow shower heads, and buying light bulbs that use less energy.

一级信息:each person plays their part.

二级信息:ng small changes

提示:后面like taking public transport…只是举例,不需要放进去。

信息:If we add up all these small changes …They could be the changes that save our future.

信息本来是可以不需要的,但我们可以把它和二级信息合并。

整合:

Experts advise each person to do his part by ng small changes, which, if added up, will surely save our future.

全部整合后,我们要做的就是加上衔接词:

句2和句3是转折,句3和句4是因果关系。

完整的:

It is human beings that are to blame for / are responsible for the Earths climate change. Gases from various human activities accelerate the process global warming, giving rise to all kinds of severe consequences such as serious diseases and the melting polar ice. Some governments, however, are reluctant to shoulder their own responsibility. Therefore, experts advise each person to do his part by ng small changes, which, if added up, will surely save our future. (72个词)

本文相关词条概念解析:

概要

Profile是建立在某个Configuration之上的特定API集合。一个Configuration只定义虚拟机和基本的API集合,不定义建立应用程序的细节。而Profile是对Configuration的扩展,提供基本Configuration所缺少的功能,包括应用程序生命周期、用户界面、网络连接、存储、安全等。一个Profile既可直接建立在Configuration上,也可建立在另一个Profile之上。

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